Approximately 5 million students in US schools have limited English language skills that affect their ability to successfully participate in education programs. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 requires that there by no discrimination on the basis of race, color or national origin in the operation of any federally assisted programs.
Under this law, it is the responsibility of the schools to ensure that all students have equal access to a quality education that enables them to progress academically while learning English.
The Office for Civil Rights and the Department of Education released a memo in 1970 clarifying a broad outline of the services to be provided. The memo stated: